||Bryophyllum delagoense (syn. B. tubiflorum and Kalanchoe delagoensis); Bryophyllum x houghtonii (syn. B. daigremontianum x B. delagoense, Kalanchoe x houghtonii)
- Missionbells, Christmas bells
- Erect, smooth, fleshy, succulent plant growing to 1m or more high.
- Leaf shape varies depending on hybrid from tubular to boast shapes to flat
- Each leaf produces small plantlets along its edge
- Tall flower spikes with clusters of orange-red bell-shaped flowers.
- Establishes well in leaf litter or other debris on shallow soils in shady woodlands.
- Found on roadsides, fence lines, coastal dunes and around old rubbish dumps.
- Adaptable to dry conditions.
- Native to Madagascar.
- Affects pasturelands in the Central Highlands around Clermont, Emerald, Dingo and the Burnett, Moreton and Darling Downs scrub regions.
- Flowers from May to October.
- Spreads by flood water and establishes if pastures are run down.
- Can also spread by animals, slashers, machinery and vehicles.
- Forms infestations in grasslands, open woodlands and coastal dunes.
- Highly poisonous, particularly to naïve, newly exposed stock.
- Affects use of stock routes.
The best form of weed control is prevention. Treat weed infestations when they are small - do not allow weeds to establish.
Steps for weed prevention:
- Check your property regularly for suspect plants.
- Control new infestations before they spread and become a major problem.
- Don't dump weeds and garden waste in bush or parkland.
- Know the weed status of any products or materials you are receiving. This includes fodder, grain, gravel, machinery, mulch, packing material, sand, soil, stock, vehicles and water.
- Clean your equipment, clothing, shoes, vehicles and machinery when leaving natural habitats and camping areas.
- Use a cleandown facility to blow, vacuum or wash dirt and seeds from vehicles, machinery and tools.
- Request a weed hygiene declaration from your suppliers.
- Ensure vehicles and machinery are clean before entering your property.
- For small areas, pull up plants by hand and burn on a wood heap. Alternatively, bag the plants and dump them in a bin, the contents of which are buried at your councils refuse tip rather than being recycled into mulch. Partially burnt plant material remains palatable and highly toxic to stock.
- When suitable (e.g. after grading firebreaks), burn infestations and the accompanying debris on which mother-of-millions plants thrive. This is the most economical form of control, encourages grass competition and lessens the problem for following years, requiring only spot spraying with selective herbicides.
- Mother-of-millions may be controlled with herbicides at any time of the year, but infestations are easiest to see in winter when the plants are in flower. Treating infestations at this time of year also has the benefit of preventing new seeds from developing on common mother-of-millions.
- See the mother-of-millions fact sheet (PDF, 238KB) for herbicide control and application rates.
- The South African thrips, Scirtothrips aurantii, is now quite widespread in Queensland. This thrips damages the outer tissue of the mother-of-millions plant and also lays its eggs under the outer tissue. Where high populations of thrips exist, the number of viable plantlets and flowers forming on mother-of-millions is reduced.
- The thrips populations vary from year to year, according to prevailing weather conditions and may not be a satisfactory long term control strategy.
- Two weevils are possible biological control agents if they can be approved under the Biological Control Act.
- A declared Class 2 species under the Land Protection (Pest and Stock Route Management) Act 2002.
- Taking for commercial use, introduction, keeping, releasing and supplying (including supplying things containing reproductive material of this pest) is prohibited without a permit issued by Biosecurity Queensland.
- Landholders are required to control declared pests on their properties.