Forage oats is the main winter forage crop in Queensland, due to its ability to produce good quality feed when most pastures are dormant. Many farmers rely on oats to fatten livestock from autumn to early spring. The use of improved varieties and better management practices are the key factors to increasing the level of productivity of oat crops. The current varieties of forage oats available for commercial sale in Queensland are described in the table below.
Grain oats are of minor importance in Queensland because there are no grain varieties suited to the warmer growing conditions. Planted at a similar time to wheat so as to avoid frost damage at flowering, oat grain frequently has to mature in hot dry weather. This promotes small and shrivelled grain, rather than plump-kernelled grain that is required by the oat grain feeding and milling markets. The seed still has good germination and is used for the generation of planting seed.
Both leaf rust and stem rust are major constraints for oat grain and seed production. These disease can be severe under favourable conditions. Stem rust causes pinched grain resulting in low seed vigour and poor germination. If the seed is poor it may be unsuitable for planting and commercially available lines will need to be sown.
|Variety||PBR||Released/sold by||Year of release||Early growth habit||1Speed to grazing||Maturity||2Reaction to|
|Leaf rust||Stem rust|
|Leaf rust resistant varieties|
|Leaf rust susceptible varieties|
|Culgoa II||DAFF/Cultivar Marketing||1991||prostrate||slow||medium||2||1|
|Graza 50||Pioneer Hi-Bred||1994||erect||quick||medium/late||1||1|
|Graza 68||Pioneer Hi-Bred||1998||erect||quick||late||1||1|
- Note: Inclusion of a variety in this table does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation of this variety by the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Queensland.
- PBR - Cultivars are protected under the Plant Breeders Rights Act 1994. Unauthorised sale of seed of these varieties is an infringement under this Act.
- 1 Speed to grazing varies with planting date - ratings based on mid-March to April planting.
- 2 The numerical scale indicates levels of field resistance to leaf and stem rust in Queensland and northern New South Wales:
- 9-7 (high) highly resistant, forage yield unlikely to be reduced
- 6-5 (medium) moderately susceptible, moderate yield loss may occur in favourable conditions
- 4-3 (low) highly susceptible, substantial yield loss may occur in favourable conditions
- 2-1 (very low) highly susceptible, substantial yield loss may occur in favourable conditions.
- 3 A new pathotype of leaf rust appeared in 2008 that infects Volta. In the absence of this pathotype, Volta will appear resistant.